Ultra-high heat flux cooling has become a research hotspot owing to its wide application in thermal engineering fields. Only by exploring its internal physical mechanism and calculating the CHF (critical heat flux) of different surfaces, can the necessary theoretical basis be provided for the design and optimization of pool boiling heat exchange in engineering applications. Previous models cannot accurately predict CHF value due to the limitations of their physical models. In this paper, a new theoretical physical model was obtained to predict CHF value of pure liquid on a heated surface. The theoretical model proposed a new CHF trigger mechanism based on the bubble behavior near the heater surface. A three-dimensional force balance of a separated bubble was analyzed at CHF condition to derive the analytical correlation for CHF value. The correlation considers the effect of hydraulic pressure, surface tension, liquid properties as well as the contact angle of the heater surface. The predicted values of CHF value on heated surfaces obtained from the present model were found in agreement with existing experimental data within a wide range. It is shown that CHF is mainly affected by factors of adhesion force and hydraulic pressure.
Keywords critical heat flux, pool boiling, bubble behavior, force balance, contact angle