Omnipresent charging infrastructure is a requisite for ensuring smooth transition to e-mobility. Reliable, sustainable, cost-effective and photovoltaic (PV) panel based charging of EV batteries could be befitting solution. This paper presents a PV module-integrated converter for EV charging station which can track maximum power point besides providing requisite high gain boost in voltage to a usable value even under intermittent conditions, i.e. insolation variation and partial shading conditions. The current control scheme evacuates the maximum available power amidst intermittent conditions. The performance of the system is evaluated under Matlab/Simulink environment. Presented simulation results show close conformity with design and validates the effectiveness of the system proposed.
In the past four decades, oil sands production in Canada has increased dramatically. More recently, Canada has developed carbon emission reduction targets to meet its Nationally Determined Contributions and Mid-Century Strategy to reduce GHG emissions. Quantification and assessment of GHG emissions from the oil sands industry – a high emitter – is necessary to track progress toward meeting emissions reduction and technology development. This study uses GCAM, an integrated assessment model, to examine the energy consumption of oil sands extraction and upgrading. Five traditional and cogeneration extraction technologies are compared in model simulations for energy cost and nonenergy (operating) cost. Results show that energy consumed by oil sands production will triple by 2050 because of the expected increase in oil sands production. Cogeneration technologies result in reduced CO2 emissions.
This work proposes a novel design incorporating a passive heat recovery device into a windcatcher and investigates its performance using numerical and experimental analysis. Numerical modelling and experimental testing were used to characterise the radial blade design of the heat recovery rotary wheel in terms of performance. Two configurations of the radial blades provide data that can be used to assess how air velocity is affected by the design, the pressure drop across the device and the heat transfer capabilities of the radial blades. To further assess the potential of the proposed devices, it was incorporated into a multi-directional windcatcher ventilating a small room. Despite the blockage of the rotary heat recovery wheel, it was able able to provide adequate ventilation. In addition to sufficient ventilation, the heat in the exhaust airstreams was captured and transferred to the incoming airstream, raising the temperature between 0.5-4K depending on the indoor/outdoor conditions, this passive recovery has the potential to reduce demand on space heating systems.
Owing to the rapid development of the global economy, the demand for energy and water resources is the main global challenge in the 21st century. This article focuses on the consumption and transfer of the water resources in China’s West–East electricity transmission project. The input–output method is employed to construct a water footprint assessment model for this project. Results show that 606.4 billion kWh of electricity and 2.5 billion m3 of virtual water were transferred from the western to eastern region in 2016. Coordinated policy making the optimal use of water resources for energy generation needs to be further discussed for promoting sustainable regional development.
Energy is vital in modern society and almost in every production process for sustainable economic growth. China is developing country and poverty is always higher especially in rural areas. The study examines the relationship between renewable energy (RE), as whole & by sources solar, wind, geothermal, foreign direct investment (FDI) and poverty alleviation (PA) for sustainable economic development in China. Ordinary Leas Square OLS and Fully Modified OLS methods are use in this study. The results found that there is long run relationship between variables and increase in investment and renewable energy sources production to reduce the poverty. Poverty causes lack of income and production resources, poor infrastructure, inequality and social discrimination. China first needed to overcome these issues for poverty alleviation for sustainable economic development.
Internal short circuit (ISC) plays an important role in lithium-ion battery safety accidents. However, the mechanism of how ISC triggers thermal runaway is still unclear yet. We implant the shape memory alloy device into jelly-roll to trigger ISC and analyze the thermal and electrical behaviors under different ISC types and SOC variance conditions. The ISC resistance is identified by using the no-salt battery based on the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests. The proposed resistance identification method benefits further ISC mechanism and modelling research.
Use of a cheap, non-edible feedstock would reduce the biodiesel production cost and make the process economically viable. This study investigated the production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) using both acid (sulfuric acid, H2SO4) and base (sodium hydroxide, NaOH) catalysts. Techno-economic analysis was performed to assess the commercial feasibilities of acidcatalysed biodiesel production from waste shark liver oil (WSLO) and alkali-catalysed biodiesel production from refined vegetable oil in Oman. Historically, the discarded WSLO was used to proof wooden boats, but now these applications are no longer required as modern boats are made of fiberglass. Hence,the excess WSLO derived from these discarded shark livers in the fishing industry could instead be utilised for biodiesel production. This would be environmentally beneficial as it converts a waste into a product. Aspen HYSYS-V9 was used to simulate both production types at plant capacity of 12,000 te/y and lifespan of 20 years. Net present values (NPVs) of US $34.8 and US $4.9 million were obtained for the acidcatalysed process using WSLO and the alkali-catalysed process using refined vegetable oil, respectively. The internal rate of return (IRR) was calculated to be 260% for the acid-catalysed process and 56% for the alkalicatalysed process. Sensitivity analysis was also conducted to show the effect of certain variables on the NPV of both biodiesel production types. It was concluded that the biodiesel selling price has more effect on the NPV than the glycerol variation price, whereas the triglyceride feedstock purchase prices have the largest influence on the NPV of the two processes.
This study involves the application of artificial neural network (ANN) as an intelligent approach to predict the output power of one alpha-type Stirling engine under some operating conditions. One ANN model had been developed based on experimental data from published literature. Output power as one of the performance indicators, was chosen as a response to input parameters, heat source temperature, engine speed and charging pressure. A multi-layer feed-forward network with a back-propagation algorithm had been proposed for such a prediction. The ANN model had been proven to be desirable in accuracy for predicting the output power by comparing the model results with experimental ones under the same operating conditions. This work would provide an effective approach based on ANN technique for solving complex design problems either with linear or nonlinear nature.
This study is part of an investigation on the influences of future energy demand and increased application of renewable resources on production planning of a regional energy system in the central part of Sweden. The study addresses the impacts of power supply from rooftop solar cells, increased application of heat pumps and penetration of electric passenger cars. Optimization results imply that use of heat pumps to replace district heating affects the demand side and reduces the heat production from energy plants. However, the power imports increase by 22%, compared with the reference system. By contrast, 100% penetration of electric vehicles in the transportation system only increases the power imports, without substantial effects on the energy plants performance.
Promoting clean heating in winter in the northern region is related to the warmth of the masses in the northern region and whether fog and haze can be reduced. On the basis of summarizing the current situation of heating in rural areas of northern China, this paper expounds the practical problems and basic needs of clean heating. Taking Shandong as the research object, this paper studies the applicability of different modes of clean heating technology in rural areas of North China.The author calculates the heat load demand during heating period, screens the suitable clean heating technology in Shandong area, and obtains the suitable technical path and application mode for rural clean heating in Shandong area.The technical feasibility, economic feasibility and environmental impact of different modes of clean heating, such as solar heating, gas heating and biomass pyrolysis multi-generation heating, are analyzed. The results show that under the existing economic and technological conditions, biomass pyrolysis polygeneration is suitable for clean heating in rural areas of Shandong Province, especially for demonstration and promotion of small centralized or decentralized heating in natural villages or new rural communities. This study provides a new way to solve the problem of clean heating in rural areas of northern China.