Gas wave refrigerator uses movement of pressure waves to realize refrigeration. When high pressure inlet gas contains condensable component, condensation happens in gas wave refrigerator. By means of numerical simulation and experiment, this paper investigates effects of condensation on performance of gas wave refrigerator. The results show that evaporation also exists in gas wave refrigerator. Latent heat released by condensation makes temperature of low temperature region rise. When the gas in high pressure inlet contains saturated water vapor, with the increase of pressure of high pressure inlet, the percentage of reduction of temperature drop firstly rises then drops. Results of experiment show that with the increase of high pressure inlet relative humidity, the temperature drop between high pressure inlet and low temperature outlet decreases. With higher pressure of high pressure inlet, change trend of temperature drop becomes gentle.
This paper presents a multi-dimensional taxonomy of levels of automation and reparation specifically adapted to Virtual Assistants (VAs) in the context of Human-Human-Interaction (HHI). Building from this framework, the main output of this study provides a method of calculation which helps to generate a trust rating by which this score can be used to optimise users’ engagement. This tool may be critical for the optimisation of energy management and consumption. Based on the research findings, the relevance of contextual events and dynamism in trust could be enhanced, such as trust formation as a dynamic process that starts before a user’s first contact with the system and continues long thereafter. Furthermore, following the continuously evolving of the system, factor-affecting trust during user interactions change together with the system and over time; thus, systems need to be able to adapt and evolve as well. Present work is being dedicated to further understanding of how contexts and its derivative unintended consequences affect trust in highly automated VAs in the area of energy consumption.
In this study, we analyze experimental time series temperature data and infer the transient behaviors of the test reactor, as well as how it changes with reactor scaling. We show that the thermal mass of the reactor has a significant part to play in the reactor’s temporal response to changes, and demonstrate that in our design, it is possible to achieve a reasonable temporal response time at scale. Based on our analysis, we devise a series of start-up and cooling operation strategies that seek to optimize the time and feedstock consumption requirements. The insights learned in this study provide a basis for a more comprehensive study of the reactor transitional operations that can be encapsulated into an automated control system to minimize human intervention.
With the emerging issues of the climate change, the international society has formed international coordination and cooperation, such as the IPCC and the UNFCCC, permitting to share climate-related information and discuss about strategic solutions of climate mitigation. In this context, countries have agreed on reducing a certain amount of carbon dioxide through the shift from fossil fuel to renewable energy, transitioning conventional energy system to be cleaner and sustainable within their geographical boundaries. Knowing that international issues such as climate change require coordination problem-solving strategy to increase its impact and synergy effects, cities, countries and regions have formed urban cooperative networks and coordination to increase synergies, share technical knowledge and engender climate change mitigation and adaptation impacts. The following study aims to investigate the C2C (city-to-city) climate network effectiveness in the presence and absence of network elements including (i) a specific linkage and (ii) network externality elements. In addition, network characteristics of the identified international C2C will be assessed through the result of their (i) eigenvector centrality and (ii) connectivity degree to ultimately assess the relative importance of network characteristics of highly effective transnational C2C networks, along with presumable geographical implications.