This study analyzes emissions projections of CO2, air-pollutants and short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) in China and India due to various combinations of lowcarbon and air pollutants control measures, and evaluates the required additional investment costs of combinations of measures as well as the cobenefits in reducing air pollutants in response to low-carbon measuresfor achieving a 2 °C global temperature change limit above pre-industrial levels, so-called “2 °C target”. It was found that, even if combinations of lowcarbon and air pollution control measures are different, there are similar CO2 emission projections for achieving the 2 °C target. However, different combinations of these measures make major effects on diverse emission projections of air pollutants and BC. It is because major emission sources of air pollutants and BC are diverse in different technologies in different sectors. In addition, investment costs of end-of-pipe measures are cheaper than low carbon measures. As a result, depending on combinations of low-carbon and air pollution control measures, required additional investment costs are different. The lower carbon measures are taken, the more energy shifting occurs to renewables and the more additional investments are required. However, emission sources of air pollutants and BC are reduced and thus there will be less need for introducing end-of-pipe measures for air pollutants. It is important to highlight such cobenefits from the viewpoint of reducing both emission amounts of air pollutants and BC and investment costs.
Keywords Short-Lived Climate Pollutant, Air Pollutant, Electrification, Energy Shift, Removal Technology, Additional Investment Cost