A hierarchical scheduling model of a district heating system which consists of residential energy stations, heat exchange stations and heating consumers was developed in this paper. . Firstly, the optimal scheduling model of the energy station with combined heat and power (CHP) unit and the heat pumps was proposed. The optimal scheduling of the energy station is conducted to decide the output of different heating equipment of the heating system to minimize the operational cost of the energy station while meeting the varying heating loads. Secondly, the heat exchange station model was developed by utilizing the heat balance principle of the heat exchanger. Finally, a model to simulate the thermal characteristic and energy consumption of the buildings was proposed. The resistor-capacitor (RC) network is used to model the thermal characteristics of the building, in which the thermal inertia of the building and the adjustment of the radiator are considered. Consumers can take active controls on their radiators, which can both reduce the heating cost and meet their comfort requirements. Numerical studies demonstrate that the proposed strategy can contribute to the operational cost reduction of energy station and heating consumers, while guarantee the consumers’ temperature comfort level.
Keywords hierarchical scheduling model, energy station, resistor-capacitor network, control valve