The analysis developed investigates the minimum cost of transporting hydrogen for various delivery distances and demands. The calculations are modelbased and estimate the minimum transport cost via road infrastructure using three different methods, i.e. a comparative analysis, and two optimization models. For that, different states of aggregation are chosen for transformation processes, transport and storage options ranging from compressed hydrogen at different pressure levels to liquid hydrogen and liquid organic hydrogen carrier. Key findings from the modelling results reveal that low and medium compressed gas are used at low hydrogen demand and transport distance, while the share of liquid based options increases with the transport distance. The results show as well the importance of the modeling method to reduce the cost, and its impact on the choice of the state of aggregation for hydrogen transport. Thus, a more elaborate optimization model estimated daily reduces the cost by privileging flexible storage option as liquid and increases the share of liquid organic hydrogen carrier at low demand.
Keywords Hydrogen transport, cost optimization, liquid organic hydrogen carrier (LOHC), compressed hydrogen, liquid hydrogen