This study established a heat-transfer model for pipeline networks, taking into account the attenuation and delay for district energy systems. The model can transform the hourly load of each building into the hourly output of the energy station to level the load. Furthermore, the hourly output of the energy station was calculated based on three scenarios that represented the locations of energy stations. The results indicated that there was a great difference between the superposition value of all the users and the output of the energy station.
Keywords community energy system, attenuation and delay, energy station, user station, hourly output, leveling effect