Volume 2: Proceedings of 11th International Conference on Applied Energy, Part 1, Sweden, 2019

The Food‐Eneergy‐(Watervirtual)‐Nexus of the German Households – a Budget Analysis Holger Schlör, Sandra Venghaus


This paper addresses the issue of social inequality by comparing German household data (gross income, Food‐Energy‐(Watervirtual)‐Nexus expenditures) from 2008 and 2013. The distribution of gross income and of the FE(Wvirtual)‐Nexus related consumption expenditures based on this income is analysed using a three step approach: First, the real distribution is determined, secondly, the dispersion (based on Rawls’ philosophical concept) is analysed, and finally, the normative distribution according to the Atkinson index is calculated to reveal a view on social inequality. The six main household groups were selected for the cross section analysis comparing the social conditions of 2008 and 2013: self‐employed households, public servant households, white‐collar and blue‐collar worker households, unemployed households and retiree households. The three‐dimensional model delivers data about the real and normative distribution of the households’ gross income and consumption expenditures for the time period from 2008 to 2013 considering the inequality perception of society.

Keywords FE(Wvirtual)‐Nexus, virtual water, inequality, Germany

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