The current vehicle-to-grid (V2G) project pilots generally face the problem of low user participation willingness, mainly due to the lack of detailed consideration of trade mechanisms and incentive policies. To address the potential threat posed by the large-scale application of electric vehicles (EVs) to the power grid system, an analysis of the promotion strategies of V2G technology among EV owners is deemed necessary. In this study, a new simulation framework for V2G adoption and heterogeneous trade mechanism evaluation based on social network theory is constructed. The diffusion process of V2G adoption and charging/discharging behavior is simulated under three trading mechanism scenarios: Time-of-Use (ToU) pricing + fixed service fee (ToU-F), regulated pricing + fixed service fee (Reg-F), and dynamic pricing + fixed service fee (Dyn-F). The research results indicate that (1) In terms of V2G adoption scale, both the Reg-F and Dyn-F scenarios have reached the maximum number of adopters, increasing by 41.8% compared to the ToU-F scenario. The main reason is that the former two trading mechanisms achieve a larger price difference, creating more opportunities for charge and discharge arbitrage. (2) Regarding EV load regulation, the discharge amount of EVs under the Reg-F and Dyn-F scenarios is much higher than that under the ToU-F scenario. The Dyn-F scenario further avoids drastic fluctuations in load. (3) In terms of benefit distribution, only under the Reg-F scenario have both the aggregator and V2G adopters gained higher profits.
Keywords Electric vehicle, Vehicle-to-grid (V2G), Social network, Trade mechanism