The interaction between H2 and electricity systems increases system energy flexibility and renewable penetration with mitigation on the grid power pressure, where the hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicle is the key component during the interaction process. However, the low energy efficiency of the electricity-H2-electricity conversion will cause massive energy loss, thus leading to an increase in operational costs and equivalent CO2 emission (ECE). This study aims to develop systems with different degrees of synergistic collaboration between battery and hydrogen energy systems by applying three hierarchical control strategies, to investigate the impact of the hydrogen-based building-vehicle network on the operational costs of the whole community and HV owners, and ECE of the whole energy network. In addition, the system also considers a variety of renewable sources, low-grade heat recovery from electricity-to-H2 and H2-to-electricity conversions, the degradation of fuel cell (FC), and multi-stage grid electricity price. Results indicate that compared to the reference case without V2B/B2V, the annual total operational costs of Case 1 (V2B/B2V interaction with first charging/discharging priority given to electric battery) and Case 2 (V2B/B2V interaction first charging/discharging priority given to FCEVs) increase by 2.35% and 17.43%, but the operational costs of HV owners are reduced by 6.76% and 36.19%, respectively. Research results can provide frontier guidelines on development of synergistic battery-hydrogen network for renewable sharing and energy use in buildings and fuel cell electric vehicles.
Keywords Hydrogen vehicle, hydrogen-based interactive energy networks, equivalent CO2 emission, energy trading, distributed hydrogen infrastructure, hydrogen economy