Most recently, the federal government in Germany published new climate goals in order reach climate neutrality by 2045. This paper demonstrates a path to a cost optimal energy supply system for the German power grid until the year 2050. With special regard to regionality, the system is based on yearly myopic optimization with the required energy system transformation measures and the associated system costs.
The results point out, that energy storage systems (ESS) are fundamental for renewables integration in order to have a feasible energy transition. Moreover, the investment in storage technologies increased the usage of the solar and wind technologies. Solar energy investments were highly accompanied with the installation of short-term battery storage. Longer-term storage technologies, such as H2, were accompanied with high installations of wind technologies. The results pointed out that hydrogen investments are expected to overrule short-term batteries if their cost continues to decrease sharply. Moreover, with a strong presence of ESS in the energy system, biomass energy is expected to be completely ruled out from the energy mix.
With the current emission reduction strategy and without a strong presence of large scale ESS into the system, it is unlikely that the Paris agreement 2° C target by 2050 will be achieved, let alone the 1.5° C.
Keywords Energy Market, Energy Planning, 1.5-Degree_x0002_target, Energy Storage Systems, Grid Integration, Energy System Optimization