ESI is expected to create new interactions and interdependencies within the WES including power, gas, heat and transport. This makes existing evaluation frameworks incapable of assessing the performance of future integrated WESs, particularly due to multi-vector integration. Accordingly, this paper proposes an evaluation framework that addresses the gaps existing frameworks exhibit regarding the evaluation of such systems and capture their complexity. The framework starts with system analysis using a SoS approach to model the system under study in a way that facilitates its evaluation. This approach enables evaluation considering different system levels and multiple perspectives. The next step is MCA where appropriate evaluation criteria and a comprehensive set of indicators are derived and interpreted. These are related to system objectives and requirements and are linked to the different system components and functions. The framework could then be applied to case studies under various scenarios to realise trade-offs or synergies. This should serve as evidence for informing decision-making on the future system and the potential benefits of ESI.
Keywords Energy systems integration, energy transition, systems engineering, system-of-systems, multi-criteria analysis, scenario analysis