Battery electric taxis are progressively supplanting conventional taxis as a primary mode of transportation, promoting energy conservation and the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. As an emergent technology, battery-swapping presents several potential advantages but also raises concerns regarding its efficacy, environmental impact, and integration with existing charging infrastructure. This paper introduces and examines four distinct energy replenishment methodologies implemented: Direct Charging, Battery Swapping, Battery Transporting, and Battery Sharing. To assess the performance of these approaches, an agent-based model was developed to simulate driver usage behavior under various mode combinations and four distinct scenario settings. The paper conducts a comparative analysis of traditional taxi charging and direct battery exchange, identifying a selection rate within 5% when ample battery-replacement stations are available. Simulation comparisons of novel charging modes reveal that battery transportation mode is superior with a smaller number of drivers, while the battery sharing mode demonstrates enhanced performance with a larger driver pool. This research provides a valuable instrument for evaluating energy replenishment strategies, facilitating the transition to low-carbon transportation in the context of future smart city development.
Keywords battery electric taxi, battery swapping, battery sharing, agent-based model, simulation