With the rapid development of urbanization and motorization, the number of automobiles in China’s cities has increased dramatically, which has caused a series of problems such as urban road traffic congestion, increased energy consumption and urban air pollution, which have become more and more serious and become hot issues of concern to the entire society. Urban residents, as the main body of low-carbon travel, play a vital role in energy conservation and emission reduction of urban transportation. This paper reviews the existing research results and draws on a large and growing body of literature to propose the extension theory of planned behavior, to study the influencing factors of low-carbon travel choices of residents in China’s four first-tier cities. The study employs distribution of 3,000 network questionnaires and the collection of micro-survey data, to interpret urban residents from the traveler’s personal attributes, travel attributes, environmental attitudes, subjective norms, behavioral attitudes, behavioral control and other aspects of the traveler’s personal attributes. At the same time, it will also provide practitioners with practical and feasible policy recommendations.