We link the highly flexible Energy System Model Backbone with Life Cycle Assessments of energy system technologies to optimize various environmental impact indicators in addition to system costs. Additionally, we perform a multi-objective optimization of costs and environmental impacts and determine a pareto front to investigate interrelationships and trade-offs even further. We apply this to the power system of twelve central european countries with a special focus on the Rhenish Mining Area, a structural change region in western Germany, in the year 2040. This reveals a decrease in electricity generation in the region for all objective functions compared to 2020, as well as a strong preference for gas power for cost minimization and onshore wind power for minimization of environmental indicators.
Keywords Energy System Model, Life Cycle Assessment, Multi-objective Optimization, Energy Transition, Structural Change, Rhenish Mining Area