This study develops hybrid renewable energy systems integrated with battery vehicles and hydrogen vehicles for application in a typical zero-energy community based on the TRNSYS platform. The load files of the community including school campus, office and residential buildings are obtained according to on-site collected energy use data and simulation data as per local surveys. Three groups of battery vehicles and hydrogen vehicles following different cruise schedules are integrated as both cruise tools and energy storage technologies. The study results find that the renewables self-consumption ratio of the zero-energy community with hydrogen vehicles is up to 94.45%, much higher than that of the battery vehicles integrated system of 75.84%. The load cover ratio of hydrogen vehicles integrated system is about 69.86%, slightly lower than that of the zero-energy community with battery vehicles of 70.21%. The lifetime net present value of the zero-energy community with battery vehicles is US$ 256.79m, smaller than that of the zero-energy community with hydrogen vehicles by 44.08%. And the net present value of the zero-energy community with battery vehicles is lower than its baseline case by about 27.54%, while the net present value of the zero-energy community with hydrogen vehicles is higher than its baseline case by 31.91%. Obvious decarbonisation potential of the zero-energy community with battery vehicles and hydrogen vehicles is achieved of about 92.71% and 75.96% respectively compared with the corresponding baseline cases. The detailed techno-economic-environmental feasibility study provides stakeholders with valuable guidance for integrating renewable supply and clean transportation in urban communities.
Keywords Solar photovoltaic, Wind turbine, Battery vehicle, Hydrogen vehicle, Zero-energy community