In 2020, China made an official announcement of reducing CO2 emissions and achieving carbon neutrality by 2060. Beyond the energy-related emissions, the steel and cement industries are typically fossil fuel-dependent and serve as the main contributors of CO2 emissions, which renders achieving carbon neutrality of particular challenges. These industries are highly energy-demanding, while only a few viable low-carbon solutions that would play a significant role during the transition from fossil fuels to renewable energies are commercially available. Herein, this study mainly focuses on the mitigation potential of low-carbon and carbon-negative technologies for these industries. An overall systematic optimizing model containing the above four industrial departments in China has been established, taking their regional demand, cost, GHG emissions, low-carbon strategies, etc. into consideration. According to the model, the most cost-effective solution supporting carbon neutrality by forming a combination of renewable energy, low-carbon and carbon-negative technologies, and energy-intensive sectors has been proposed and reasonably identified.
Keywords carbon neutrality, optimization, energy, steel industry, cement industry