Windows are a key design element that can affect the building energy performance and occupant psychological satisfaction. While smaller windows can increase building energy performance, they can also lower occupant psychological satisfaction. Despite the importance of determining the optimal window size by considering the building energy performance and occupant psychological satisfaction and their trade-off relationship, few studies have proposed a window size that considers both aspects. To solve this problem, this study proposed the following framework capable of accounting for both aspects in determining the optimal window size: (i) experimental settings for measuring the occupant psychological satisfaction based on the window size; (ii) virtual environment creation using SketchUp, 3dsMax, and the Unreal engine; (iii) measurement of occupant psychological satisfaction using questionnaire survey; (iv) measurement of building energy performance using SketchUp and EnergyPlus; and (v) selection of the optimal window size using the Pareto optimal solution. Using the proposed framework, even non-specialists of virtual reality or energy simulations can easily measure building energy performance and occupant psychological satisfaction by SketchUp modeling. Based on the building energy performance and occupant psychological satisfaction measured as such, the optimal window size can be determined according to building usage and conditions as well as client requirements.
Keywords Virtual Reality (VR); Occupant psychological satisfaction; Building energy performance; Building energy consumption; Pareto optimal solution