Volume 29: Closing Carbon Cycles – A Transformation Process Involving Technology, Economy, and Society: Part IV

How to evaluate energy sufficiency: A direct measurement approach Shinichiro Okushima



This study presents a novel approach to measuring energy sufficiency, which can identify whether people really satisfy an adequate level of domestic energy services, considering their diverse energy needs. The result, applying the method to the case of Japan, clarifies the characteristics of people in energy sufficiency, and those of the energy poor and energy extravagant. The study also demonstrates that reducing inequalities in access to low-carbon energy or technology is a major challenge in engendering an inclusive low-carbon energy transition.

Keywords Energy sufficiency, energy poverty, energy extravagance, climate justice, energy transition

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