Passive design measures were regarded as a method to address the energy performance gap (EPG) in buildings. However, there is a lack of quantification of the impact of passive design measures on the EPG. This study aims to quantify the impact of passive design measures on the EPG using a case study of high-rise residential buildings in Hong Kong. First, key passive design variables were identified through a literature review, including window-to-wall ratio and window type. Second, an as-designed energy model and an as-occupied energy model were built using DesignBuilder and EnergyPlus. Third, sensitivity analysis was conducted using passive design variables as inputs in both the as-designed and as-occupied energy models. Results show that the EPG of the case building was about 16%. The window type has a greater impact on the EPG than window-to-wall ratio. This study demonstrates the potential of passive design measures for closing the EPG.
Keywords Passive design measure, energy performance gap, low carbon, high-rise residential buildings, building simulation, sensitivity analysis