The increasing levels of CO2 in the atmosphere have prompted the development of CCUS, which faces challenges such as limited mineral trapping, reservoir capacity, and the risk of leakage. To address these challenges, this review proposes in situ mineral carbonation in basalt formations, which are characterized by rapid carbon mineralization and widespread distribution. The review explores the mineral reaction mechanism in basalt reservoirs using laboratory experiments and numerical simulations or modeling. Representative research conducted in the past ten years is emphasized to indicate better carbon mineralization conditions in basalt formations. Two field-scaled pilot projects in Wallula and Iceland are explained to provide examples for future CCUS projects. However, CCUS in basalt will only become mainstream with further technological development and policy funding.
Keywords Basalt formation, CO2 sequestration, In-situ mineralization, CCUS, CO2-water-rock reaction, Government assistance