The process of methane anaerobic oxidation coupled with sulfate reduction promotes alkaline conditions and the formation of carbonate minerals in cold seep environments. The existing studies on microbial communities inhabiting carbonate rock surfaces in cold seep environments primarily revolve around in situ investigations. In this study, high-pressure enrichment cultivation was conducted using methane as the sole carbon source, and periodic monitoring of community dynamics was performed. The results revealed a selective increase in the abundance of the ANME-2c group, which is a typical type of microorganism in methane utilization, anaerobic oxidation, and the synthesis of other nutrients. Additionally, temperature was identified as a crucial factor influencing microbial populations and carbonate processes. Higher temperatures stimulated microbial metabolism, resulting in the production of acidic substances and extracellular hydrolytic enzymes, potentially leading to carbonate dissolution. Conversely, lower temperatures had minimal impact. These findings reveal the significance of methane metabolism and temperature in microbial community dynamics and carbonate kinetics in deep-sea environment.
Keywords Cold seep, Anaerobic oxidation of methane, Carbonate, prokaryotic communities