With the increasing penetration of renewable power generation and decreasing share of conventional frequency-sensitive generating units, demand-side response is playing an increasingly important role in balancing the real-time supply and demand of electric power systems. Industrial electric heating loads are critical demand-side resources because of their significant electric power consumption, large thermal energy storage capability and high automation level. In this paper, an optimal tendering method was proposed to decide the baseline load and response capacity of a group of bitumen tanks to provide the Firm Frequency Response service in the context of Great Britain. Simulation studies were conducted based on field test data of bitumen tanks and practical market data of Great Britain. The results show that the proposed method is able to minimize the net cost the tank group, considering both the energy cost in the electricity retail market and the remuneration from providing the frequency response service.
Keywords industrial electric heating loads, optimal scheduling, bidding strategy, frequency response, demand response