As Cornell is transitioning to a carbon-free energy system by 2035, the campus energy system of the future will be based on 100% renewable energy sources. Specifically, the electricity will be mainly sourced from the local electric grid, which is expected to be carbon-free in the next two decades. Earth source heat and lake source cooling will serve as the major source for base-load renewable heating and cooling, respectively. Multiple geothermal wells will be drilled to meet the base-load heating demand. A conventional chiller will continue to provide auxiliary cooling sources for hot summer days in addition to the lake source cooling system. Peak load will be fulfilled by introducing heat pumps, thermal energy storage, and green hydrogen. This study addresses the economically optimal future design by developing a multi-period optimization model, to provide insights for the campus energy systems transition.
Keywords carbon-neutral hybrid energy systems, earth source heat, lake source cooling, heat pump, thermal energy storage, green hydrogen