Phasor measurement unit (PMU) can provide high precision measurements to improve the observability of smart distribution network. Considering the imbalance of supply and demand caused by a large number of buses but limit investment cost, a model of PMUs placement which takes the limited number of PMUs as the constraint is proposed. The objective function maximizes network measurement redundancy while maximizing the number of observable buses. The model considers the influence of various topologies and improves the observability further by taking zero injection bus (ZIB), injection measurement and power flow measurement into consideration. A customized genetic algorithm (CGA) is proposed to solve the model. All individuals become feasible solutions by performing customized crossover and mutation operations. Finally, a method for determining the order of PMUs placement based on the optimal solution is given. The method is tested on IEEE standard bus systems. The results indicate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.
Keywords phasor measurement unit, distribution network, observability buses, various topologies, customized genetic algorithm, order