This study develops simulation models and novel energy management strategies of hybrid renewable energy systems integrated with energy storage of pumped hydro and hydrogen taxis for a net-zero energy commercial building sector in Hong Kong. A new time-of-use system management strategy considering the future high penetration of renewable energy installations is proposed based on the estimated local solar photovoltaic and offshore wind power potentials. The research results indicate that it is feasible to develop local hybrid renewable energy systems integrated with pumped hydro and hydrogen vehicle storages for achieving net-zero energy commercial building sectors in high-density regions. The time-of-use operations on the hybrid renewable energy and storage systems significantly reduce the annual electricity bill and equivalent carbon emissions of the net-zero energy commercial building sector. And the future time-of-use management considering renewable energy generations in determining on-peak and off-peak periods improves the renewable energy self-consumption, on-site load coverage and annual electricity bill of the net-zero energy commercial building sector compared with the current time-of-use operation. This study exploring the technical, economic and environmental feasibilities of developing hybrid renewable energy and storage systems for a net-zero energy commercial building sector provides significant guidance for policy makers to develop renewable energy for achieving carbon neutrality in commercial building sectors in urban regions.
Keywords Solar photovoltaics, Wind turbine, Net-zero energy commercial building sector, Pumped hydro storage, Hydrogen vehicle storage