This study develops hybrid renewable energy systems for applications in zero-energy buildings and their community integrated with stationary battery storage and mobile hydrogen vehicles following different cruise schedules. The educational, office and residential building groups in Hong Kong are selected for zero-energy building case studies based on on-site collected energy consumption data and simulated load data as per local surveys and codes. And a zero-energy community integrating the three building groups is also developed for comparison to evaluate the supply, load cover, storage efficiency, grid integration, system cost and carbon emission indicators. The study results indicate that the renewable energy self-consumption ratio of four zero-energy scenarios varies between 88.10% – 96.01%. The community microgrid performs best in the load cover ratio of 74.96% with shared renewables and storages and achieves positive grid integration performance with a peak-to-average power ratio of 7.65 due to the complementary load characteristics of three building groups. The hydrogen storage efficiency of four zero-energy building scenarios varies between 37.42% – 55.62%. The levelized cost of energy of hybrid systems applied in four zero-energy scenarios varies within 0.48 – 0.63 US$/kWh, and it can be reduced to 0.09 – 0.24 US$/kWh considering the local feed-in tariff. The CO2 emission of the zero-energy community is about 13631.82 tons, higher than the sum of three buildings by 4.32%, as its power exchange with the utility grid is reduced for more renewable energy self-consumption with higher energy losses. The detailed techno-economic-environmental feasibility analysis offers valuable references for relevant stakeholders to develop renewables applications in zero-energy building communities of urban areas.
Keywords solar photovoltaic, wind turbine, hydrogen vehicle, battery storage, zero-energy building community