With declining cost of renewable energy technologies, new form of urban energy systems can be established in a cost-effective way. Urban environments consist of various areas such as residential area and urban district with different energy consumption patterns and building structures. Cost effectiveness of the technologies can be different in different parts of urban environments and different time. To evaluate these differences, we performed techno-economic analyses of renewable energy technologies (PV, battery, and EV) for a residential area in Shinchi, Fukushima and a central district of Kyoto, Japan. We found that high electricity demands in the central Kyoto provide higher cost reduction through renewable energy than that of the residential area in Shinchi in 2018. PV only system has the highest cost reduction in 2018. By 2030, â€œPV EVâ€ provides the highest cost reduction for both environments, but the Shinchi area with relatively larger number of EVs exhibits the higher cost reduction than that of Kyoto. These differences have important implications for strategies of urban decarbonization for coming decades.
Keywords Renewable energy resources, photovoltaics, electric vehicles, battery, urban decarbonization, techno-economic analysis