In this study, a hydrogen trade module was developed based on the GCAMv6.0 model to investigate the role of hydrogen trade in the low-carbon transition of energy systems, we conducted a study using Japan as an example. The results indicate that hydrogen imports in Japan will replace the local production of gray and blue hydrogen, leading to an increase in hydrogen demand and penetration rate in end-use sectors. Among the import pathways, ammonia shipping is the primary mode. Therefore, Japan should prioritize the development and popularization of hydrogen production, trade, and end-use technologies, and contribute to the expansion of hydrogen imports in the local region.
Keywords hydrogen import, energy system, low carbon transition, Japan