The thermal degradation kinetics and flammability of three forest fuels (pine needle, pine bark, and pine branch) were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Friedman method and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa method were used to determine the conversion dependence of apparent activation energy (E) for degradation of the fuels. The flammability of the three forest fuels were evaluated by the TGA results combined with the distribution of activation energies. Results indicate that pine needle is easier to release volatiles than pine branch and pine bark when heated. Pine branch involves the highest combustibility and pine bark shows the highest sustainability in fires.
Keywords flammability, forest fuel, thermogravimetric analysis, model-free method