This study proposes two configurations of deep integrating low-grade thermal energy during the discharge process of the Carnot battery. The thermodynamic and economic models for pump thermal energy storage, which integrates low-grade thermal energy on charge and discharge processes, are established. The genetic algorithm is used to obtain the optimal operating performance of the proposed Carnot battery, and a comparative analysis is carried out under different design conditions. The results show that the deep thermal integration can significantly improve the operating performance of the Carnot battery during the discharge process. The operating performance of different configurations is significantly affected by the design charging load.
Keywords Carnot battery, ORC, deep thermal integration, charging loads, integration configurations