This study investigates the impact of urbanization on water efficiency using panel data from 31 provinces and cities in China from 2011 to 2021. By employing the spatial Dubin model, we examine the spatial heterogeneity and spatial agglomeration effects in water usage per 10,000 yuan of GDP. The findings reveal that urbanization in China significantly supports the improvement of water efficiency and exhibits spatial spillover effects. Moreover, the decomposition of spatial effects indicates that the indirect effects play a dominant role. These findings contribute to our understanding of the relationship between urbanization and water efficiency, providing valuable insights for water resource management and sustainable urban development.
Keywords Urbanization, water resource utilization efficiency, spatial econometrics