Volume 48

Viability and Advantages of Smart Hybrid EV Charging Stations: A Techno-economic Analysis Wentao Xin , Zhe Yu, Zhenwei Lu, Bin Ye



Transportation electrification is an important strategy of addressing the rapid growth of carbon emissions from the transportation sector. However, rapid and widespread adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) may result in adverse effects such as increased grid emissions, power equipment degradation, and reduced grid efficiency. This study employs HOMER software to develop a hybrid EV charging station model with deferrable charging, offering a potential solution to these issues. To determine the most effective energy configuration, a multi-scenario simulation using real-world charging load data is performed. Findings indicate that hybrid charging stations equipped with smart charging technology can significantly alleviate these negative impacts by reducing peak loads, cutting carbon emissions, and enhancing cost efficiency. In these simulations, the optimal solution for public charging involves integrating wind power with grid electricity. This approach yields an annual production of 1,567.5 MWh, achieves an levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of $0.051/kWh, and results in a negative net emission through the sale of excess electricity to the grid. Furthermore, comparative simulations illustrate three key points. First, the system can sell back the excess electricity to achieve a negative net emission of -266 t carbon dioxide per year. Secondly, in the public charging scenario, managed charging has a significant effect on reducing peak loads (92% reduction in the maximum peak load), lowering grid emissions by selling back excess clean electricity (-74.5t per year), and optimizing the energy cost ($0.030/kWh reduction in LCOE). Lastly, in the domestic charging scenario, on-demand charging may outperform the deferrable charging. This paper highlights the limitations of REs and smart charging, the need for region-specific strategies and energy configurations, potentially contributing valuable insights to the fields of charging strategies and energy systems.

Keywords renewable energy resources, EV smart charging, charging infrastructure

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