Reducing CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion is emergent, especially for China. As one of the most concerned techniques in CO2 capture process, the rather high energy consumption and cost in chemical absorption process is the leading obstacle interfering the development and deployment of CCS. In this paper, the energy consumptions during chemical absorption process in the literatures were collected, where the data distributions indicate that developing advanced absorbents may be a more efficient way in energy saving compared with improving separation process. Thus, a further verification is carried out based on idea separation process. Results show that improving separation process has limited possibility in reducing energy consumption compared with developing advanced absorbents, and the potential in improving separation efficiency for the former is one third as much as the latter.
A large potential for energy savings can be found in building envelopes of the existing Swedish dwelling stock. This study analyzes the final energy savings and cost implications of energy efficiency measures for an existing multi-apartment building in Sweden. Energy efficiency improvements consisting of high-performance windows as well as doors, and additional insulation to attic floor and exterior walls were modelled to the buildingâ€™s thermal envelope. Dynamic energy balance simulations were performed to determine the final energy savings of the improvements. The cost-effectiveness of the improvements were then analyzed considering the net present value of the energy cost savings and the investment costs of the improvement measures. The results showed that additional insulation to the attic floor is the only cost-effective measure for the building under the existing operating conditions. The other improvement measures give high final energy savings but are not cost effective due to their high investment costs.
As the climate change casts its shadow on our future, while temperatures are rising in a noticeable pace, thermal comfort in buildings are subjected to that effect in terms of future levels. This paper aims at evaluating thermal comfort levels in a pilot Passivhaus building, while integrating building simulation software, implementing new tools alongside the Passivhaus Planning Package, to produce multiple parameters as a detailed output for assessing the building indoor thermal status of users, during current and different future timelines and CO2 emission scenarios. Findings have predicted a set of PPD values for different timeline-CO2 emissions combinations, including recording a jump in PPD from 35% at the historical recent timeline of 2003-2017, to 94% at the timeline of 2080s of high CO2 emission scenario, during summer peaks at each timeline. Results have also identified a set of descriptive outputs regarding psychrometry, thermal sensation, and effective temperatures.
This paper presents a critical evaluation of the performance of the first awarded EnerPHit building under the different climate zones of Greece following a digital twin approach. The thermal behavior and the relative humidity of the original building without active strategies have been numerically investigated for the four different climates. The results show that the Passive House design could be applied in all four climate zones in Greece with minimum updates in terms of insulation thickness, providing an avenue for mass prefabrication and application of the Passivhaus concept in Greece.
A dual-purpose underground thermal battery (DPUTB) integrates a ground heat exchanger with underground thermal energy storage. It can be installed in shallow boreholes (less than 6 m deep) and thus is less expensive than the conventional ground heat exchangers. The thermal energy storage can be used to shave or shift the electric load for meeting the thermal demands of a building. The charging and discharging performance of a lab-scale DPUTB were tested. The test results show that the DPUTB can be fully charged within 4 h and can provide 34 W cooling continuously for 2.5 h with a supply water temperature below 14Â°C. A small amount of phase-change material significantly increased the thermal storage capacity.
Airports have terminal buildings that are ideal places to deploy PV panels, which is able to power airport in an eco-friendly way with low carbon footprint. Ecaluate the PV potential at airports and its economic performance can help to understand the benefits airport PV will bring is important for decision-making. Thus, combining GIS data, image recognition, the PV integration potential at airports in China has been investigated. According to our research, airport PV potential is up to 2.67 GW in China. Detailed economic analysis manifests that all airport PV can be profitable.
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused problems all around the world. To control the spread of the virus, some governments have imposed restrictions on the mobility of their citizens. Specifically, in Spain, from the months of March to May, lockdown was imposed. The effect of these actions is reflected not only on epidemiological data, but also on the behavior of the population, and therefore, some of their sectors. One of these sectors is the energy consumption. In this sense, this paper studies the impact that the COVID-19 pandemic has had on energy consumption using the data from the Smart Meters of the secondary distribution network at low-voltage. This approach has de advantage that is not only able to obtain the impact at aggregated level but is also able to obtain the impact on smaller groups at customer level. The results show an increase in energy consumption on residential customers in contrast with a remarkable reduction on non-residential customers. In the case of non-residential customers, different consumption patterns have been found during the pandemic. These consumption patterns are highly correlated with the restrictions imposed to control de spread of the pandemic.
One of the major barriers to closing the energy efficiency gap is the failure to successfully inform the population about measures to conserve energy. This paper introduces the design of a mobile application developed to improve energy conservation of residential buildings by informing occupants of transferrable energy efficient green features in a green-certified, nonresidential building. The application was developed to investigate dissemination of transferable energy saving practices to explore spillover effects from nonresidential to residential buildings. Our research aims to capitalize on such spillover effects to narrow the energy efficiency gap.
Increased social awareness on the greenhouse gases led to climate agreements setting their strict reduction targets. In order to achieve decarbonization of the shipping industry, some technical measures can be applied, such as replacement of classical ship power system with diesel engine as a prime mover with some alternative solution. This paper investigates the applicability of alternative power system configurations that can be implemented on board passenger and cargo ships from Croatian inland waterway fleet. The environmental impact of three different potential power system configurations (diesel engine-powered ship, battery-powered ship and photovoltaic cells-battery-powered ship) was investigated through the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) by means of GREET 2019 software. The comparison identified the photovoltaic cells-battery-powered ship configuration as the most environmentally friendly power system configuration.
Reductions of environmental footprint and lifetime costs are nowadays key aspects of most of human activities. Such concerns are also present in the aquaculture sector which involves the cultivation of aquatic organisms as well as all activities related to their processing, seeking to ensure sustainable growth. This paper deals with the environmental and economic aspects of aquaculture systems (involving aquaculture farms and relevant farm vessels) with a high share of renewable energy sources (RES). The energy needs of a typical aquaculture system are identified and Life Cycle Assessments (LCAs) of different power system configurations are performed. These configurations are also compared from the economical viewpoint, by the Life Cycle Cost Assessment (LCCA). Electrification of farm vessels is recognized as a key solution to reduce both the environmental footprint and operating costs. However, as shown by LCA, due to specific operating profile of farm vessels their energy needs can not be completely covered by RES, since an amount of electricity supplied from the national grid is needed. Therefore, the share of renewables will be dependent on the percentage of RES in the energy mix of the specific location of the aquaculture system. The LCCA analysis has shown that this form of integration requires larger investment which, if an unfavourable form of RES is chosen, may cause financial losses.