Unconventional shale gas production in the United States has been largely improved due to development of hydraulic fracturing technology. However, the acquisition of freshwater and management of flowback and produced (FP) water associated with hydraulic fracturing operation becomes one of the greatest challenges in shale gas development. Thus, it requires a better understanding of the quantity of injected water and produced FP water as well as their relationship of shale wells to help expand and upgrade the existing water network and shale gas network. We collected water-use and monthly FP water production volume data for each shale gas well available in the Eagle Ford and Marcellus shale regions from multiple database sources. Then, water recovery ratios of these wells were calculated to study their spatiotemporal variation among counties over multiple time periods. To evaluate how the water recovery ratio may affect shale gas development, a shale gas supply chain network (SGSCN) optimization model from the literature was utilized to perform two case studies in the Marcellus region. In conclusion, significantly different SGSCN configurations are required for economically desirable, and practically feasible management of wells with different water recovery ratios.
The future of passenger transportation lies in electrification. Freight transportation however has size and weight limitations that make electrification challenging, such that the continued emission of carbon dioxide from the combustion exhaust of heavy-duty vehicles is likely. A carbon capture strategy to intercept CO2 from mobile emission sources, analogous to stationary capture systems for power plants, is therefore attractive to reduce CO2 emissions from freight shipping. The economic and environmental implications of a conceptual technology, utilizing a porous adsorbent bed to selectively remove CO2 from tailpipe exhaust, are examined herein. In the economic evaluation, the hypothetical abatement cost for mobile carbon capture is found to be competitive with stationary capture and with vehicle electrification at about $100 per ton of avoided CO2 emissions. Based on the market potential of land freight shipping, 0.12 to 0.15 °C of avoided warming through the end of the century is achievable by the implementation of mobile carbon capture for long-haul freight vehicles. Collectively, carbon capture from heavy-duty vehicles could provide a practical, cost-competitive, and sustainable contribution to mitigating global greenhouse gas emissions.
Low carbon hydrogen can be produced using a range of technologies. Green hydrogen is produced using electrolysis and renewable electricity, while blue hydrogen is produced using steam methane reforming (SMR) with carbon capture and storage (CCS). Recent studies and strategies have compared these technologies but have not assessed the effects of lower-than-perfect CCS capture rates on long term cost competitiveness. This paper computes the amount of emissions that would occur under different carbon dioxide capture rates, and the relative costs of blue and green hydrogen under different scenarios for carbon costs and for lifetimes of production facilities. Our analysis gives insights into the cost competitiveness of blue versus green hydrogen under strengthening climate policy over time. Our assessment takes into account expected hydrogen production opportunities and costs in Australia, and parameters in the Japanese Hydrogen Strategy. We find that while blue hydrogen (from fossil fuels, with CCS) is generally cheaper to produce now, green hydrogen is likely to improve its cost competitiveness over time. Tightening carbon constraints will raise the possibility that blue hydrogen production assets could become stranded.
Abstract—Apart from improving our quality of life, knowledge, and our development in general, the Industrial Revolution and the inadequate system of values and priorities that followed disturbed natural and energy balances to the point that it jeopardizes life continuation on Earth. The new direction and the change of the approach in handling our resources were necessary, united under the introduction of renewable and sustainable energy. The transformation of the energy sector requires a very complex analysis, different perspective, and philosophy from the one we currently use.
This article aims to propose a novel understanding of renewable energy and energy in general, by introducing a new technological merger between electricity generation and water filtration technologies, with far better financial, environmental and sustainability benefits from presently known technologies.