In this paper, we develop a residential grid-level optimization model, which incorporates both electrical consumption scheduling (ECS) systems and energy storage devices (ESDs), so as to lower the peak-to- average ratio (PAR) of electricity demand and reduce the costs of electricity supply and consumption. This model consists of three levels: household consumption optimization (solo opt), grid consumption optimization (base opt) and ESD allocation optimization (ESD opt). To evaluate this model, a realistic residential population of 180 households subdivided into subpopulations by household sizes and income levels was simulated using a bottom-up randomization approach, with electricity supply from conventional thermal generation (CTG). The results show that PAR can ideally be reduced to 1 with an optimal allocation of ESDs among households with positive bills savings.
Keywords Demand Side Management, Electrical Consumption Scheduling, Energy Storage Devices, Convex Optimization; Genetic Algorithm