An energy components analysis for stop-to-stop drive segments is provided. In particular, the components of rolling resistance, air drag, and kinetic energy are examined for conventional and optimal segments. It is shown that in energy-optimal driving, the maximum kinetic energy is reached early in the drive segment and then it is converted into work to overcome air drag and rolling resistance; in a sense, it is recovering kinetic energy. In conventional profiles, the maximum speed is attained late in the profile and thus cannot be used to cover much of the air drag and rolling resistance energy cost. The role of the initial acceleration is shown to play a key role, especially for short segments. These results are illustrated through several simulation examples.
Keywords Optimization, energy, autonomous driving, acceleration