The electrification of transportation modes such as cars, buses, and boats offers the potential of providing vehicle-to-X services during idle times. Pools of vehicles can provide balancing power, trade on the electricity market, or be used for load peak shaving. In this work, the usage patterns of electric cars, electric buses, and electric boats are investigated, and the provision of vehicle-to-X with these vehicles is simulated using an open-source simulation tool. A data analysis and a vehicle usage pattern assessment show that especially private electric cars behave predictably at night. It also reveals that the vehicle-to-X availability varies over the week for all vehicle types and is highest at night for cars and buses. During the day on weekdays, private cars are available for vehicle-to-X 30 to 70% of the time, the analyzed buses 5 to 50% of the time, and the availability of the boats depends on their primary use as ferries or private boats. If the three transportation modes provide vehicle-to-X during idle times, the equivalent full cycles that the lithium-ion batteries complete increase at different rates depending on the vehicle pool size, while the mean charging rates decrease. Furthermore, an exemplary aging analysis shows that the additional load of vehicle-to-X provision slightly increases the capacity loss of the car batteries compared to a paused unidirectional charging strategy.
Keywords electric vehicles, vehicle-to-X, vehicle-to-grid, lithium-ion batteries, transportation means, battery degradation