The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) applied in 2011 for a permit to construct a disposal facility in the municipality of Östhammar. Given this is still an ongoing permit process the aim with this study is to investigate how informed the Swedish citizens are in these issues. Telephone interviews were conducted in December 2018 to January 2019. A majority of the citizens, 55%, are aware of the plans of a nuclear waste repository. Most don’t know where the repository is planned to be located, but surprisingly many knows that copper canisters are suggested to be used. This together with a cluster analysis is presented and discussed in the paper.
The scientific contribution highlights, first of all, the insurance situation tout court in relation to catastrophic emergencies, outlining a brief framework of the ways in which insurance companies come into contact with the insured parties (contractors), and through which techniques they define, from time to time, specific contractual drafts and cases. Secondly, the text focuses on one of the most important insurance parameters for the determination of the insurance premium and possible indemnity in relation to the risk related to natural hazards, namely the so-called Exceedance Probability (EP) curve. Outlining the first two parts, the article turns to the main one of the analysis, i.e. the legal consequences, both civil and criminal, according to EU and Italian legal system, of the conduct of the insurance company on the stipulation of a contract with the omission and / or commission of a fraudulent determination of the aforementioned curve. In particular, the authors focus on the substantive and procedural determinations of the aforementioned case before the criminal and civil court, highlighting its subsidiarity or alternativeness. The conclusions concern the position of the consumer in the European Union in relation to the conduct of the insurance companies, whose imputation, negligent and / or fraudulent, often determines the stipulation of a contract rather than another about the inherent risk of natural hazards.
The paper presents a study of arc flash protection in a PV power plant connected to distribution network. It first put forward an approach applying relay protection and coordination to reduce arc flash hazard. An example of micro-grid with PV power plant connected is then proposed to verify the effectiveness of the approach. In recent years, the growing concern for environment preservation has caused the sustainable power and energy system gets more attention. The renewable energy integrated with traditional power system, such as the PV power plants connected to micro-grids, turns out to be lack of stability and more vulnerable to typical faults. Among many kinds of faults, the arc fault could result in serious arc flash accident, even terrible fire and explosion, leading to casualties and huge economic losses. In order to study the hazard of an arc flash accident and the way to protect the equipment from it, the paper uses a power system analysis software, named EasyPower, to simulate an arc flash accident happens in a PV power plant inside a micro-grid and makes an assessment of the hazard. After that, the time-current curves are plotted for the purpose of protection coordination among all the protective devices. The original relay settings are adjusted to satisfy the selectivity and backup protection.
Mixed CH4-THF hydrate formation has been investigated at ambient temperature (298 K) with focus on advancing the commercial feasibility of solidified natural gas (SNG) technology for natural gas storage. In addition to freshwater, direct use of seawater has also been studied for hydrate formation. There is quite a gulf between the two systems at the chosen experimental temperature of 298 K with final gas uptake for the freshwater system being more than double that of its seawater counterpart while the kinetics of hydrate formation also shows a marked difference, in favor of freshwater. To improve the kinetics of hydrate formation from seawater, possible use of two kinetic promoters, hydrophilic amino acid L-Arginine and hydrophobic amino acid L-Tryptophan has been proposed. Both kinetic promoters used enhance the kinetics of hydrate formation from seawater and while the final gas uptake is roughly equivalent for the systems without any promoter and with hydrophobic L-Tryptophan, presence of hydrophilic amino acid L-Arginine increases the final gas uptake obtained for seawater as well.
Transport sector around the world is in a transition era by experiencing a disruption of electric vehicle (EV) technology. This transition brings both challenges and opportunities to energy system and energy pattern in transport sector, such as increasing of electricity demand and reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study aims to analyse the potential future scenarios of the penetration of EV in Thailand’s road transport sector. In addition, the impacts of such technology to energy demand and supply and potential of GHG emission reduction in transport sector will also be assessed.
Policy commitment of the government plays a crucial role for EVs market in Thailand. Therefore, the future scenarios can be explored by two cases: Current Policy Scenario (CPS) represents the current actions of government support on EVs, whereas Proactive Policy Scenario (PPS) represents full package of government supports on both supply and demand sides. High penetration rate of EVs will impacts on Thailand energy system, especially road transport sector. This include total energy demand pattern, load profile of electricity demand and GHG emission. The results present that total number of EVs in PPS scenario will consume electricity more than that of CPS scenario around 1,650 ktoe (19,363 GWh), however, they can reduce 474 ktoe of total energy consumption and 10 MtCO2eq by 2040.
We evaluate the techno-economics of an integrated strategy to coproduce biofuels (Jet fuel range alkenes (JFA)) and biochemicals (pentanediols and pentane). Coproduction of biochemicals could improve the economics of biofuels production, and this study shows the feasibility of proposed strategy by stochastic analysis. Monte Carlo simulation is introduced for the stochastic analysis considering the uncertainty in major economic parameters of integrated strategy. The stochastic analysis obtains the distribution of minimum selling price of JFA. The integrated strategy considering uncertainties in key economic parameters has low minimum selling price of JFA ($2.86 and 3.17 per gallon of gasoline equivalent (GGE)), and the price is within the price range of biofuels ($2.90-4.82 per GGE).
The ventilated exhaust-air window provides an approach to combine the window system with exhaust air heat recovery. This new window can act as a heat exchange to recover the heat or cold of the exhaust-air to mitigate the heating or cooling load of the window. The zonal model is a reliable method to analyze the two-dimensional heat transfer of the ventilated exhaust-air window. However, the optimal subsection number of the zonal model for evaluating the thermal performance of the ventilated exhaust-air window has not been identified. In this study, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to estimate the effect of the subsection number on the simulation results of zonal model, and to identify the suitable and recommended subsection number for the numerical modeling of the ventilated exhaust-air window. The results indicated that reducing the subsection number in vertical direction will lead to a higher calculation deviation. In current case studies, the subsection number of 10 for the zonal modeling can zonal model can predict the thermal performance of the ventilated exhaust-air window with promising accuracy, while spending less computation time.
The rack backdoor cooling is an efficient way for server temperature contral and energy saving. In this paper, a coupled model of multiple-heat-sources model of 42U rack and mathematical models of the microchannel vertical evaporator are established and mathematical models are verified by experimental results. Inhomogeneous air temperature and flow velocity data after being heated by servers and before coming in evaporator can be obtained with the rack model. It is discovered that the maximum temperature difference is up to 9.5℃ under uniform load conditions, and 15℃ under non-uniform load conditions. When upper, middle and lower parts of the rack are set to zero load, the overall air-side outlet temperature difference can reach 6.5℃, 8℃ and 8.5℃ separately. Compared with full load working, the air temperature uniformity of evaporator outlet can be improved when some severs are standby, and it improves with the height of inactive servers. These simulation results can provide an effective guidance for the optimization design and application of the micro-channel vertical evaporator in the rack backdoor cooling.
Hydrate distribution controls the properties of hydrate-bearing sediments. Few methods cannot be available to understand hydrate distribution characteristics macroscopically at present. Designing a large-scaled pressure vessel possessing five measuring positions, we investigated hydrate distributions through the features of resistances in quartz sands and excess water. The results show that gas and hydrate governed the characteristics of resistances during hydrate formation stage. Different increasing fluctuations of resistances can show hydrate distributions. In our experiment, hydrates were considered to mainly distribute in the middle of horizontal artificial sediments. The resistances of hydrate-bearing sediments may offer a reference to hydrate distributions.
This paper discusses the concept of the sustainable energy ecosystem and introduces the main progress of our solid oxide electrolysis cell research. The latest progress of Power to X (P2X) technology realizes the sustainability of the multi-energy network by introducing the carbon-based cycling procedure. Among the P2X technologies, Solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) is used to co-electrolyze CO2-H2O to produce synthetic gas, which is then synthesized into hydrocarbons through a fetor reactor. These two steps can effectively utilize the CO2 in the atmosphere and realize the carbon-neutral cycle. We focus on the made of Ce0.92Ni0.08O2/YSZ/LSM thin-film batteries at 600℃ for producing syngas. The experiment result shows that the observed current density reaches 0.1 mA/cm2 with a Faraday efficiency of over 95% and a hydrocarbon yield around 4 ml/min/cm2.