Policy on household carbon reduction behavior has an important role on climate actions but is neglected in practice. Household participation in carbon market is a valuable solution. Enhancing understanding of impacts facilitates the deployment on ground in those countries with carbon market. A dynamic computable general equilibrium model is used to analysis the socioeconomic impacts of household participation in carbon market. With the case study of China, we find household participation can reduce 45.5% and 28.1% of fossil fuel emissions of rural and urban households, save carbon mitigation cost by 13.60~14.01%, reduce household welfare loss and influence social equity in 2050. The allocation mechanisms would impact the household welfare and social equity. The methodology can be applied in subregions and other countries to explore the magnitude of impacts. This study evidences the benefits of household participation in carbon market, and give policy-makers some insights to design a reasonable household carbon reduction policy around the world.
To investigate the release and transformation of fuel K during air gasification of biomass, wheat straw, corn stalk and rice straw are gasified in a fixed-bed reactor system from 400 to 1000 Â°C. Weight measurement, elemental composition analysis, and chemical fractionation analysis are performed. The influences of release of Cl, fuel type and gasification temperature on the release of K are discussed. The results show that for all biomass fuels, the release ratio of K and Cl increases with gasification temperature. In the 400-600 Â°C interval, the release of K and Cl increases gently and sharply respectively, and the trend from 600 to 1000 Â°C is the opposite. From the release ratio of K and Cl together with the distribution ratio of water-soluble K, it can be concluded that part of water-soluble K transforms to gas phase in the form of KCl in the 600-1000 Â°C interval.
In the infrastructure of communication base stations, the power supply system is an important component. The bi-directional DC-DC converter of the energy storage system is important for maintaining system stability and ensuring safe operation of the load. In this paper, the mathematical model of lithium battery is studied, the topology and operating mode of the bi-directional converter for energy storage are analyzed, and the control strategy of the energy storage converter is summarized. The MATLAB/Simulink simulation results prove the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.
In this study, an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) driven by solar energy and industrial waste heat is proposed to achieve a collaborative optimization from the heat source side and the working fluid side. An integrated heat exchanger network-organic Rankine cycle (HEN-ORC) system model is established in the GAMs environment. The parameters of physical properties for the working fluid are calculating by the PR equation of state. The optimal ORC integrated system driven by hybrid heat sources at different inlet temperatures of the waste heat streams are obtained through the developed optimization method. Comparative analysis on the ORC driven by waste heat, ORC driven by solar energy, and the hybrid heat source-driven ORC are conducted. In addition, the influences of working fluids on the system performance is also analyzed.
Compared with the basic organic Rankine cycle (ORC), organic dual-pressure Rankine cycle (ODC) and organic flash Rankine cycle (OFC) can provide better temperature match between working fluid and heat source in the heat absorption process. However, heat exchanger area is also remarkably increased. Since, the net power output (Wnet) and heat exchanger area per unit power output (APR) of the three cycles are optimized and compared in this study. The result shows that ODCâ€™s and OFCâ€™s maximum net power output and minimum APR are greater than ORCâ€™s when the initial temperature of exhaust gas without SO2 is 120-200ï‚°C. When the initial temperature is 160ï‚°C and the flow rate of 62.15 kg/s of heat source and R245fa as working fluids, The ODC system can achieve a better thermo-economic performance than ORC and OFC systems.
Two storage cooking solar pots are compared experimentally during solar and storage cooking periods. For off-sunshine storage cooking periods, the pots are placed inside insulated wonderbag slow cookers. The first storage pot contains sunflower oil as the storage material, while the second pot contains erythritol as the storage material. Storage and heat utilisation efficiencies are evaluated using five different water heating loads (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 kg). The sunflower oil pot shows slightly higher storage efficiencies (3.2-4.4 %) compared to the erythritol pot (2.5-3.9 %). The storage efficiencies reduce marginally for both pots with an increase in the load. Heat utilisation efficiencies increase significantly with the load for both storage cooking pots. The erythritol storage pot shows higher heat utilisation efficiencies for most of the investigated loads (1.3-49 %) compared to the sunflower oil pot (17-46 %). The change in the cooking load has a more significant effect on the heat utilisation efficiency compared to the storage efficiency.
A three-dimensional numerical model of a thermoelectric module (TEM) is constructed using COMSOL simulation software basing on HZ-type thermoelectric material. First, the different models are compared with considering variable physical property and equal internal resistance or not. Then, the geometric structure on P(N) leg of TEM is optimized by taking the power density as the optimal objective. The results show that the optimal geometric size combination of p-n legs is lopt = 6.9 mm and hopt = 0.8 mm. The peak power density with optimal structure can increase by 75% compared to Hz products.
To deeply remove dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) from oil, phosphotungstic acid (HPW) was supported on Cu3(BTC)2(Cu-BTC) by impregnation to improve the adsorption desulfurization performance. A series of Cu-BTC with different amounts of HPW were prepared and studied in batch adsorption desulfurization experiments. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), nitrogen adsorption-desorption were used to study the structural properties of adsorbents. Besides, reusability and adsorption performance under ultra-low sulfur conditions were also studied. The experimental results of adsorption desulfurization indicated that the HPW impregnation solution’s greatest concentration was 20% and showed the best performance of desulfurization-the maximum sulfur adsorption capacity of adsorbent was 45.1 mg S/g. The ultra-low sulfur adsorption experiment showed the same result. In the model oil with a sulfur content of 50ppm, the desulfurization rate of 20%HPW/Cu-BTC reached 86.4%, and the sulfur content of the model oil after adsorption was about 7 ppm, which could satisfy the requirements of clean oil. The results could provide an excellent adsorbent for removing DMDS from oil.
The blast furnace (BF) slag produced in the iron and steel smelting process contains abundant waste heat resources. The centrifugal granulation waste heat recovery technology is considered to be the most promising BF slag treatment process. In this paper, a granulation cabin structure is proposed to inhibit particles bonding, and the effects of initial slag temperature, cooling air flow rate and rotating speed on waste heat recovery are discussed. The results show that the waste heat recovery rate can be improved by increasing initial slag temperature and cooling air flow rate. At the same time, 1800 rpm is the suitable rotating speed for waste heat recovery.
Power-to-methane based on the solid oxide electrolysis cell is considered as a promising technology for energy storage. Most research employed the lumped parameter method to establish the core componentsâ€™ model (i.e., solid oxide electrolysis cell and/or methanation reactor) for the performance analysis of the overall power-to-methane system, which is unable to reveal the performance of the core components accurately. Thereby the safety and stability of the overall system cannot be evaluated reasonably. In this paper, the distributed parameter method for the model of the core components is conducted to evaluate the performance of the overall system reasonably with the consideration of the temperature gradient of the solid oxide electrolysis cell as well as the maximum temperature of the methanation reactor. The results indicate that the temperature gradient of the solid oxide electrolysis cell should be kept as low as possible with the increasing overall efficiency and methane yield, and it is necessary to control the operating temperature of the methanation reactor in a rational range to avoid the non-ignition and catalyst deactivation.