Nowadays, the electrical needs in Indonesia become a very important sector, but the electrification is still at the 6th position in the Southeast Asia region, therefore in 2019, the government aims to increase the electrification to be 99.99 percent. However, it must also be balanced by the increase in the use of New and Renewable Energy (NRE). This is in accordance with the target of the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources to achieve 23 percent of the use of NRE in 2025. One of the areas in Indonesia that has the potential for the utilization of applied renewable energy is Diwak Village, Semarang, Central Java. The New and Renewable Energy is the micro-hydro power (MHP). Therefore, this research aims to determine the potential of the microhydropower in Diwak Village, Semarang. Basically, the micro-hydro power (MHP) could be used for an area that has stable water flow discharge and the amount of slope. The methods are calculating float method for flow discharge data, Rock Mass Rating (RMR), and calculating the capacity power. As a result, lithologies at the location are the volcanic and autoclastic breccia. The flow discharge in Diwak River is 0.29 m3 / sec, and the minimum power that will be generated with its discharge is 40.29 KW. These results sum up that the flow has good potential in utilizing MHP in Diwak Village.
Goal commitment is a critical construct in understanding the relationship between goals and behavioral performance in the field of energy conservation. However, little has been done to investigate goal commitment in relation to electricity saving performances in household goal-setting treatment. This paper seeks to re-contextualize the associations of goal commitment with electricity saving performance in households and provide meaningful discussion and explanation to the findings observed. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of goal setting strategy on household electricity consumption in Singapore. In particular, interventions of assigned and self-set goal setting types were compared. Residents’ goal commitment was also accessed to understand the relationship between goals and electricity-saving performance. The results revealed a significant positive correlation between self-reported goal commitment and self-set goal choice. However, no significant relationship was found between self-set goal choice and electricity savings. It was also found that goal commitment has no significant relationship with electricity savings when goal difficulty was not a moderator, as in assigned goal group.
Steam power plants have a huge potential to meet the growing energy demand but its viability has been hampered by its dependence on conventional fossil fuels. One of the ways to minimize fuel consumption and improve effectiveness of thermal power plant is by introducing feed water heaters (FWHs). In this study, thermodynamics performance analysis of a reheatregenerative steam power plant was carried out using CyclePad version 2 software. The impact of the available feed water heaters on the functionality indices of the selected power was examined. Results of the study show that as the number of feed water heater increases from one to ten, the thermal efficiency and boiler efficiency improve from 42.17% to 45.97% and 79% to 96.4 %, respectively. While the fuel consumption, heat rejected to condenser, heat rate and heat input to the power cycle decreases from 9.697 kg/s to 4.686 kg/s, 209.32 kJ/kg to 129.68 kJ/kg, 8536.87 kJ/kWh to 8318.48 kJ/kWh and 361.11 kJ/kg to 237.98 kJ/kg, respectively. This implies decrease in operation cost of the plant and environmental impacts can be achieved by increasing the number of FWHs. Hence, the importance of FWH revamp performance of steam turbine power plant is established.
This paper describes the thermal performance of an adsorption refrigerator system utilizing activated carbon-ammonia pair. The experiment was done by using thermal energy supplied by electric tape heater to the adsorber at selected temperature of 110°C with varied desorption time from 1 to 4 hours. Records of energy consumption, temperatures for adsorber, condenser, evaporator cold chamber and adsorber pressure were taken. The prototype tested attained evaporator cold chamber temperatures varying from 4.8°C to -0.6°C for desorption times of 1 to 4 hours. These temperatures are relevant to the vaccine storage requirement of 2C to 8C. Therefore, this adsorption refrigeration technology, which can be easily manufactured in least industrialised countries is a promising solution for off grid application.
Research on upgrading of bio-oil in supercritical alcohols shows a potential to produce vehicle fuels from bio-crude. However, the separation of solvent alcohols and upgraded oil remains a problem. In this paper, biocrude derived from fast pyrolysis of rice husk was upgraded in supercritical CO2 with the catalysts of Pd, Ru, Pt (supported on activated carbon), in order to recycle the solvent from upgraded oil spontaneously. Results reveal that increase of reaction temperature promotes both esterification reaction and hydrogenation reaction, while increase of initial H2 pressure promotes the conversion of aldehydes, but decrease the conversion of phenols and sugars. On this basis, the production process of fast pyrolysis and supercritical CO2 upgrading was established and simulated with Aspen plus software. Through life cycle inventory analysis, the environmental impact of this process were studied, and then compared with upgrading in supercritical ethanol. The result shows weaknesses centered in the agricultural production and upgrading process. At last, the analytic hierarchy process is used to consider the weights of various environmental indicators to obtain a comprehensive LCA result. The final results display a slightly better environmental impact potential than that of ethanol.
Nowadays, the fundamental idea of district heating (DH) is to utilize local heat resources to satisfy local heat demands, otherwise those resources would be wasted. However, the mismatch between the achievable resources and fluctuating demand is challenging. This study analyzed the possibilities to solve this problem by introducing a short-term thermal storage and a seasonal thermal storage. A water tank (WT) and a borehole thermal storage (BTS) were chosen as the thermal storages. The DH system of a Norwegian university campus was selected as the case study. A high order system model was built in Modelica language. The results showed that the mismatch might be solved. The BTS brought about 3 GWh annual heat saving, and the WT brought about 110 kW average peak load shaving. However, around 0.8 GWh/year electricity was used by heat pump to recover the stored heat in the ground.
China is a vast country with great regional variations in economy level, resource endowments, industrial structure, demographics, and CO2 emissions level. Previous studies on regional CO2 emissions were usually confined to production- or consumption-based perspectives and neglected the emissions under income-based perspective as they also can be enabled by the use of primary inputs. To fill this gap, we investigate the variations of provincial CO2 emissions under these three perspectives in China during 2007–2012 and intend to identify out which type of final demand and primary input contributes most to the variations of provincial CO2 emissions. Results show that variations of domestic outflow and gross fixed capital formation contributed most to the emissions growth for most provinces under consumption-based perspective, while variations of domestic inflow and compensation of employees did so under income-based perspective. This work can help guide the development of just and effective mitigation policies for various provinces in China.
This article aims to model the transmission architecture of a planetary power split Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) to improve fuel efficiency as well as to reduce emission, conforming sustainable design. The model is developed using model based equations, retrieved from literature and Design of Experiment with response surface solution mode. Development of power management strategy for the above, utilizing associated mathematical modeling of the proposed gearset topology guided transmission architecture is disseminated in this work. Design solution for suitable gearset topology is derived by utilizing response surface method and genetic algorithm. The result shows that connection between planetary gear stages, amongst considered variables, holds highest significance and also helps to infer that most suitable configuration is to couple the engine with the second planet carrier for a two-stage power split device. The modelling-based result depicts successful implementation of two stage planetary gear train as power split device with fossil fuel consumption reduction of 49.16%, maximizing electric power utilization for greener transportation.
The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) applied in 2011 for a permit to construct a disposal facility in the municipality of Östhammar. Given this is still an ongoing permit process the aim with this study is to investigate how informed the Swedish citizens are in these issues. Telephone interviews were conducted in December 2018 to January 2019. A majority of the citizens, 55%, are aware of the plans of a nuclear waste repository. Most don’t know where the repository is planned to be located, but surprisingly many knows that copper canisters are suggested to be used. This together with a cluster analysis is presented and discussed in the paper.
The scientific contribution highlights, first of all, the insurance situation tout court in relation to catastrophic emergencies, outlining a brief framework of the ways in which insurance companies come into contact with the insured parties (contractors), and through which techniques they define, from time to time, specific contractual drafts and cases. Secondly, the text focuses on one of the most important insurance parameters for the determination of the insurance premium and possible indemnity in relation to the risk related to natural hazards, namely the so-called Exceedance Probability (EP) curve. Outlining the first two parts, the article turns to the main one of the analysis, i.e. the legal consequences, both civil and criminal, according to EU and Italian legal system, of the conduct of the insurance company on the stipulation of a contract with the omission and / or commission of a fraudulent determination of the aforementioned curve. In particular, the authors focus on the substantive and procedural determinations of the aforementioned case before the criminal and civil court, highlighting its subsidiarity or alternativeness. The conclusions concern the position of the consumer in the European Union in relation to the conduct of the insurance companies, whose imputation, negligent and / or fraudulent, often determines the stipulation of a contract rather than another about the inherent risk of natural hazards.