Hydropower has historically dominated Brazil’s power system, leaving the country’s energy supply vulnerable to extreme hydrological variations. Brazil will embrace an energy system that integrates more solar and wind resources to diversify its energy mix and further mitigate carbon emissions.
To explore this, we present PyPSA-Brazil, a novel model based on publicly accessible data and the PyPSA modelling framework. The modelling of the cost-optimal system incorporates a simplified grid with one node per federal state to optimize the operation and expansion of generation, storage, and transmission for all hours of the year. To demonstrate PyPSA-Brazil, a case study that depicts the limits on transmission grid expansion is exemplarily evaluated. Expanding today’s lines by 175% could help Brazil to achieve a zero-emissions energy system, but this may require additional flexible capacity beyond the existing and planned hydro and biomass power plants. Further investment is particularly needed to expand the transmission between the new renewable energy production centres in the north-east and south of Brazil and the consumption hotspots in the south-east.
Buildings are accountable around 30-40% of global energy consumption. The modern designs of building with significantly large size of glazed façade are trending and liked by the owner and designers. However, their energy and indoor visual performances are required to be investigated thoroughly. This study assessed the most significant design parameters for south glazed façade office in composite climate of Amritsar in India. The influential parameters have been identified through uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for energy and indoor visual performances. The WWR, ASR, Gt and ST have been identified major and common design parameters that influence the performance of buildings. However, their contributions vary with the performance parameters.
Hydrogen (H2) is a clean energy carrier that has the potential to reduce carbon emissions. Currently, H2 is being produced from fossil fuels. The major drawback of fossil-based H2 production is the production of CO2 and other impurities along with it. H2 rich syngas has gained attention recently. In syngas, H2 is the main component along with carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. To separate and purify H2, the pressure swing adsorption (PSA) method is adopted. PSA can produce high purity H2 but with low recovery. In this study, membrane and cryogenic distillation-based separation methods are analyzed and evaluated for the separation and purification of H2 from syngas. The cryogenic process achieved high H2 purity (99.999%) with high recovery (99.999%), yet the major challenge is high energy consumption (2.53 kWh/kgFeed). The membrane process, on the other hand, consumes less energy (0.88 kWh/kgFeed) but produces H2 with low purity (98.85%) and recovery (89.91%). The economic analysis of these processes showed that the membrane process is costeffective with less TCI (34.36 m$) than the cryogenic process (38.21 m$).
A large part of 2020 and 2021 was marked by the COVID-19 pandemic. A global pandemic has caused changes in people’s behavior and has created challenges for multiple industries and numerous sectors. One of the most affected sectors is the electricity sector, which already deals with challenges caused by decarbonization and the integration of low-carbon technologies. Newly caused challenges are especially important for Distribution System Operators (DSOs) since they are responsible for the planning and operation of distribution networks and for resolving the problems caused by the change of end-users’ habits. To identify and visualize pandemic-induced changes, an integrated geographic information system (GIS)-based tool is developed and presented in this paper. After identifying errors in GIS and end-users’ consumption data and preprocessing them, pandapower and the developed harmonic calculation extension are used for the analysis of different power quality (PQ) indicators in low-voltage (LV) distribution networks. As a final step of the developed tool, the impact of COVID-19 on PQ indicators is visualized using GIS.
Global warming has slowly threatened the rapid development of mankind which makes CO2 as the main greenhouse gas utilization research has attracted more and more attention owing to its excellent energy increasing effect, especially, it provides new ideas for the development of marine heavy oil resources. The steam injection effect of offshore heavy oil reservoirs with strong edge water is restricted by problems such as short oil production time and fast edge water coning speed, CO2 assisted steam stimulation technology will effectively improve the production during steam injection in offshore heavy oil reservoirs with edge water.
The paper established a CO2 assisted cyclic steam stimulation model for offshore strong edge water heavy oil reservoir based on the rock hydrothermal reaction under CO2. Here the geochemical and fluid flow aspects are fully coupled such that the time dependent CO2 rock hydrothermal reaction is strictly preserved. Secondly, the transformation from immovable sand to mobilized sand under specific conditions is described, and the sand migration mechanism varying with time is revealed, acquired the storage mechanism and influencing factors of CO2 under steam injection. In addition, the edge water reservoir model with water rock reaction is established by CMG, which are benefited to optimizing injection production parameters of controlling water coning and increasing CO2 storage in offshore edge water heavy oil reservoir
It can analyze the edge water coning characteristics under the condition of time-varying porosity and permeability, as well as the expansion of steam chamber in the steam development process of edge water heavy oil reservoir, and the analysis of CO2 concentration distribution, to improve the utilization rate of steam energy and reduce energy consumption. Besides it provides theoretical support for the development of offshore strong edge water heavy oil reservoir and realizes the integration of carbon storage and crude oil production.
Plant-based vegetation systems are economically feasible and energy-efficient applications to reduce particle matters and volatile organic compounds in indoor environments. The impact of these systems depends on their location and operating conditions. This study focuses on the impact of a real plant-based green wall system, which consists of 128 plants, on a real Lshaped office environment with a total area of 162 m2. The steady-state numerical model is constituted for the whole office area and the trends of air velocity and the air exchange per hour are investigated in the office. The results are compared to the same office environment without green wall scenario, and it is seen that the air exchange per hour is improved by more than 40% for the whole office environment at 1 meter level above the office ground. The outputs of the steady-state model are also found useful for further simulation cases including a transient investigation.
Indoor greenery is an energy-efficient and sustainable solution for living spaces thanks to its positive impacts on indoor air and environmental quality. This study presents experimental research to see the impact of a living green wall based on vegetation systems on the removal of total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs). The living space is a real office environment with a number of 15 people while the outdoor environment is a tropical climate. The study collects continuous and long-term TVOC data using Demand Based Biological Air Purification System (DBBAPS) supported by cloud-based data storage. Sensors are located in various parts of the office and the results show that the present green wall can remove TVOCs up to 95% over a five-week period.
In this work, a modified model considering partial penetration and finite conductivity of hydraulic fractures is introduced to estimate the carbon sequestration capacity of depleted shale reservoir with multiple fractured horizontal well. Firstly, the conservation equations, initial conditions as well as boundary conditions for matrix, natural fractures and hydraulic fractures are deduced with the consideration of partial penetration, finite conductivity, CO2 diffusion, adsorption and seepage. Then, by means of Laplace transform, Pedrosa transform as well as Fourier transform, the pressure response in real domain is acquired. Finally, based on the pressure response of injection well, the influence of penetration degree combined with hydraulic fracture conductivity and hydraulic fracture half length on carbon storage capacity are analyzed, which were always ignored in the conventional methodologies. The results indicate that the penetration degree has significant impact on the early and mid-stage of carbon storage. With the increase of hydraulic fracture half length and conductivity, the influence of penetration degree decreases gradually. Compared with conventional methodologies, the modified model can provide more precise predictions for carbon storage capacity of shale reservoirs.
In order to meet global climate goals and to reduce CO2 emissions, Germany is gradually decarbonizing not only the energy industry but also other sectors such as the chemical and steel industries. To this end, Germany will, e.g., completely phase out coal-fired power generation by 2038. This will inevitably lead to an energy and structural transformation that must be ecologically and economically sustainable. Making this change sustainable necessitates an interdisciplinary approach and understanding for the problems and issues to be solved. Against the background of the coal phase-out in the lignite mining region of the Rhenish region, the Doctoral School Closed Carbon Cycle Economy (DS CCCE) of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum focuses on research on topics related to the necessary energy and structural change and thus trains experts at graduate level. The involved disciplines are Applied Energy, Humanities, Natural Science and Social Science. The PhD projects are largely disciplinary in order to train specialists in the respective fields. At the same time, the DS CCCE offers interdisciplinary networking formats, in order to promote the necessary interdisciplinary understanding and to develop a common language in between disciplines. The DS CCCE is presented in this paper and the PhD projects funded by the DS CCCE are briefly outlined.
Catalytic hydrotreatment of macroalgal bio-oil using supported palladium and copper chromite catalysts was systematically studied. The aqueous fraction of brown algal bio-oil (BABO) produced by fast pyrolysis was used as feedstock and was hydrotreated in temperature range of 250-400 °C at LHSV 0.48 h-1 and 10 MPa H2 using a trickle bed reactor. The yields of the organic phase products over the 5wt% Pd/Al2O3 and CuCr2O4 catalysts were maximal 42.33 wt% and 39.73 wt% at 350 °C, respectively. When the reaction temperature increased, the H/C ratio of the organic products increased with decreasing the O/C ratio. The carbon double bonds along with proof of unsaturated compounds were saturated by catalytic hydrotreatment. The supported palladium catalysts produced more furans and esters with increasing carboxylic acids in aqueous phases, whereas the copper chromite increased the heterocyclics and phenolics.